what causes gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes, Holistic doctor online

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

What is Gestational Diabetes?

When a non-diabetic woman develops diabetes (high blood sugar) when she is pregnant, it is called Gestational Diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes develops during the last 3 months of pregnancy and resolves after delivery.

Gestational Diabetes is found in 5 to 15% of pregnant women.

What is the cause of Gestational Diabetes?

Placenta helps the baby to grow in the uterus.

Hormones produced by the placenta to help the development of the baby, affects the function of mother’s insulin. This produces gestational diabetes.

It is more common in pregnant women with obesity, polycystic ovaries, type 2 diabetes in their families and in pregnant women above 35 years.

What are the symptoms of Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational Diabetic patients may not show many symptoms. Diagnosis is normally made when routine blood tests are done.

What are the types of Gestational diabetes?

Type 1 GDM:  High blood sugar level in oral glucose tolerance test with normal fasting & postprandial (pp) blood sugar values.

Type 2 GDM: High blood sugar in oral glucose tolerance test and high fasting& postprandial (pp) blood sugar levels.

What are the possible complications?

Gestational diabetes can produce intrauterine death of the baby, stillbirth, congenital abnormalities, and big Babies. Babies can become diabetic later. In mothers, it can produce pre-eclampsia (Condition with high blood pressure with albumin in the urine), uterine atony, prolonged labour and infection.

GDM patients can become type 2 diabetics latter.

What are the investigations to be done?

Oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, Urine examination and Ultrasound abdomen.

What are the treatments for Gestational diabetics?

For type 1 GDM: Diet control and mild exercise is enough. Reduce carbohydrates in the diet and take more proteins and lot of vegetables.

For type 2 GMD: Insulin is the treatment of choice. Anti-diabetic tablets are not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT MINIMIZES THE COMPLICATIONS.

Diabetes

Diabetes, cause of diabetes,symptoms of diabetes

Diabetes  (Diabetes mellitus)

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the person has high level of blood sugar (glucose).
Diabetes is on the rise and now becoming an important health problem to the whole world.

What is the cause of diabetes?

Diabetes is caused mainly due to the slowly changing life style from manual work to highly automated industries, migration of people from villages to cities, environmental changes, and increased inactivity leading to obesity. Consumption of high caloric-high fat diet and Jung food are major factors that produces diabetes. Heredity also plays a role.

Types:

Type 1 Diabetes: Juvenile diabetes, also known as insulin dependent or child hood onset diabetes .Here the beta cells of the pancreas does not produce insulin.
Our digestive system change the carbohydrates and sugar we eat to simple sugar called glucose, which can be used as energy by the cells. Insulin is necessary to push glucose from blood into the cells of our body.
Type 1 diabetes may be congenital (heredity) or our immune system may destroy the beta cells of pancreas which produce insulin. It is usually diagnosed in children and young adults.

Type 2 Diabetes: Here the insulin production is slowly reduced and the secreted insulin may not be enough to reduce glucose level or the cells are unable to recognize the insulin and use it (insulin resistance).

Gestational diabetes: It affects some female when they are pregnant. Their children are at risk of becoming diabetic. Their children may be overweight at birth.

Pre-diabetics: When Persons blood glucose level is little higher than normal but not up to diabetic level (fasting blood glucose 100-120 mg\d}.

What are the symptoms?

Frequent urination (polyuria), Frequent thirst and hunger, tiredness and fatigue, non-healing wounds, Numbness or burning sensation of hands and feet, Giddiness, Loss of memory .loss of vision, Weight gain or weight loss.

What test to do?

Hb A1C: Hb A1C is called glycosylated haemoglobin, a form of haemoglobin that is attached to glucose. It is a blood test which shows the average blood glucose level in the past 3 months.
Normal: Below 5.7 %.
Pre-diabetic: 5.7 % – 6.4 %.
Diabetic: above 6.5 %.

Fasting blood glucose: Blood glucose values measured in Empty stomach. Normal value: Below 110 mg\dl or below 6.1 m mol \ l.

Post- prandial blood glucose: Blood glucose level measured 2 hours after food. Normal value: Below 140 mg\ dl or below 7.8 m mol \ l.

Oral glucose tolerance test: Here 75 grams of glucose is given orally and blood glucose levels measured at the end of one hour and at the end of two hours. Fasting blood glucose: 110 mg\ dl or 6.1 m mol \ l 1 hour: 10 m mol \ l or 180 mg \ dl 2 hours: 7.8 m mol \ l or 140 mg \ dl.

Complications

Diabetes can affect any part of the body.amputation
• Peripheral neuropathy
• Loss of vision, diabetic retinopathy
• Hearing loss
• Loss of blood supply to legs
• Gangrene of foot may lead to amputation.
• Reduced sexual libido and impotency.
• Arterial diseases and stroke.
• Diabetic keto-Acidosis; (DKA). If the body cannot get enough insulin, it breaks down fat cells. This produces chemical called ketones, leading to DKA, a life threatening condition.

Treatment

The main treatment of diabetes is Diet Control, Daily Exercise and Drugs.

Diet
Eat more vegetables and fruits. It is better if they are more colourful.
Eat high fibre cereals legumes and whole grains.
Have lot of fish, skin less chicken, milk and eggs.
Reduce the intake of carbohydrates, deep fried foods, sugary drinks and packaged foods.

Daily exercise
Daily exercise like yoga, brisk walking. Taichi, Cycling or swimming has to be followed.

Drugs
Type 1 Diabetes: Injection Insulin is the main line of treatment for type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes: Oral anti diabetics can be given.
Drugs that stimulate insulin secretion like Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Gliclazide and Glimepiride may be given.
Drugs that delays absorption of carbohydrates from intestine like acarbose and voglibose can be given.
Biguanides like Metformin to reduce hepatic glucose production can be given. Thiaolidinediones like pioglitazone which increase the insulin sensitivity may be given.
These drugs can be given alone or in combinations.
In some type 2 diabetics injection insulin is necessary.

Natural remedy for diabetes

PREVENTION:

Healthy foods, healthy body weight, active life with moderate physical activity and proper sleep can prevent diabetes. Avoiding smoking, avoiding mental stress and reduced alcohol intake can also helps in preventing Diabetes.