Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
What is Gestational Diabetes?
When a non-diabetic woman develops diabetes (high blood sugar) when she is pregnant, it is called Gestational Diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes develops during the last 3 months of pregnancy and resolves after delivery.
Gestational Diabetes is found in 5 to 15% of pregnant women.
What is the cause of Gestational Diabetes?
Placenta helps the baby to grow in the uterus.
Hormones produced by the placenta to help the development of the baby, affects the function of mother’s insulin. This produces gestational diabetes.
It is more common in pregnant women with obesity, polycystic ovaries, type 2 diabetes in their families and in pregnant women above 35 years.
What are the symptoms of Gestational Diabetes?
Gestational Diabetic patients may not show many symptoms. Diagnosis is normally made when routine blood tests are done.
What are the types of Gestational diabetes?
Type 1 GDM: High blood sugar level in oral glucose tolerance test with normal fasting & postprandial (pp) blood sugar values.
Type 2 GDM: High blood sugar in oral glucose tolerance test and high fasting& postprandial (pp) blood sugar levels.
What are the possible complications?
Gestational diabetes can produce intrauterine death of the baby, stillbirth, congenital abnormalities, and big Babies. Babies can become diabetic later. In mothers, it can produce pre-eclampsia (Condition with high blood pressure with albumin in the urine), uterine atony, prolonged labour and infection.
GDM patients can become type 2 diabetics latter.
What are the investigations to be done?
Oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, Urine examination and Ultrasound abdomen.
What are the treatments for Gestational diabetics?
For type 1 GDM: Diet control and mild exercise is enough. Reduce carbohydrates in the diet and take more proteins and lot of vegetables.
For type 2 GMD: Insulin is the treatment of choice. Anti-diabetic tablets are not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT MINIMIZES THE COMPLICATIONS.