what causes gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes, Holistic doctor online

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

What is Gestational Diabetes?

When a non-diabetic woman develops diabetes (high blood sugar) when she is pregnant, it is called Gestational Diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes develops during the last 3 months of pregnancy and resolves after delivery.

Gestational Diabetes is found in 5 to 15% of pregnant women.

What is the cause of Gestational Diabetes?

Placenta helps the baby to grow in the uterus.

Hormones produced by the placenta to help the development of the baby, affects the function of mother’s insulin. This produces gestational diabetes.

It is more common in pregnant women with obesity, polycystic ovaries, type 2 diabetes in their families and in pregnant women above 35 years.

What are the symptoms of Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational Diabetic patients may not show many symptoms. Diagnosis is normally made when routine blood tests are done.

What are the types of Gestational diabetes?

Type 1 GDM:  High blood sugar level in oral glucose tolerance test with normal fasting & postprandial (pp) blood sugar values.

Type 2 GDM: High blood sugar in oral glucose tolerance test and high fasting& postprandial (pp) blood sugar levels.

What are the possible complications?

Gestational diabetes can produce intrauterine death of the baby, stillbirth, congenital abnormalities, and big Babies. Babies can become diabetic later. In mothers, it can produce pre-eclampsia (Condition with high blood pressure with albumin in the urine), uterine atony, prolonged labour and infection.

GDM patients can become type 2 diabetics latter.

What are the investigations to be done?

Oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, Urine examination and Ultrasound abdomen.

What are the treatments for Gestational diabetics?

For type 1 GDM: Diet control and mild exercise is enough. Reduce carbohydrates in the diet and take more proteins and lot of vegetables.

For type 2 GMD: Insulin is the treatment of choice. Anti-diabetic tablets are not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT MINIMIZES THE COMPLICATIONS.

Low Blood Sugar

Stress-Holistic doctor online, Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)

Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)

What is Hypoglycemia?

It is a condition where the blood sugar becomes abnormally low. It is a medical Emergency, to be treated immediately. If not, brain damage or death can occur.

What level of blood sugar produces Hypoglycemia?

Blood sugar level below 55 mg\dl produces symptoms.

What produces Hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia usually happen in diabetic patients on insulin and or on oral drugs and it happen when they skip meals or eat food very much latter than normal time. Over dose of anti-diabetic drugs can also lower blood sugar.

In non-diabetic people abnormal over work without enough food, excessive drinking alcohol without food (binge) and on fasting for long period can produce hypoglycemia.

Conditions like pituitary insufficiency, liver failure, Addison’s disease, and tumours of pancreas can also produce hypoglycemia.

What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?

Patients may have excessive sweating, hunger, palpitation (feeling fast heart beats), anxiety, dizziness, weakness, confusion and may have pale skin.

In severe cases patient may have seizures, can become violent and go in for hypoglycemic coma

What investigation to be done for low blood sugar?

Urgent capillary or blood glucose estimation to be done.

What is the treatment for hypoglycemia?

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If the patient is conscious give oral glucose or sugar. Soft drinks with sugar or fruit juice can be given. Glucose tablets or hard sugar candy can be given.

Do not give food or fluids to unconscious patients as they may aspirate (choke).

If the patient is unconscious, shift to a hospital. Intra venous Glucose 10% or 25% can be given.

How to prevent Hypoglycemia?

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Not to skip meals and to take small frequent food (once in 3 hours).

Take documents of their diabetic treatment always with them.

Check blood sugar level often and adjust the dose of drugs according to the physician’s advice.

Diabetic patients should carry glucose tablets or candy with them always to be taken in emergency like hypoglycemia.